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Many religions have menstruation-related traditions, for example: Islam prohibits sexual contact with women during menstruation in the 2nd chapter of the Quran. Some scholars argue that menstruating women are in a state in which they are unable to maintain wudhu , and are therefore prohibited from touching the Arabic version of the Qur'an. Other biological and involuntary functions such as vomiting, bleeding, sexual intercourse, and going to the bathroom also invalidate one's wudhu.

For example, the Jewish Torah prohibits sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman. Menstruation education is frequently taught in combination with sex education at school in Western countries , although girls may prefer their mothers to be the primary source of information about menstruation and puberty. Schools can be an appropriate place for menstrual education to take place.

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This has been shown to cause the development of a negative attitude towards menstruation. Most female mammals have an estrous cycle , yet only ten primate species, four bat species, the elephant shrew and the spiny mouse have a menstrual cycle. Some anthropologists have questioned the energy cost of rebuilding the endometrium every fertility cycle. It has proposed that the energy savings of not having to continuously maintain the uterine lining more than offsets energy cost of having to rebuild the lining in the next fertility cycle, even in species such as humans where much of the lining is lost through bleeding overt menstruation rather than reabsorbed covert menstruation.

Many have questioned the evolution of overt menstruation in humans and related species, speculating on what advantage there could be to losing blood associated with dismantling the endometrium, rather than absorbing it, as most mammals do. Humans do, in fact, reabsorb about two-thirds of the endometrium each cycle.

Some work asserts that overt menstruation occurs not because it is beneficial in itself. Rather, the fetal development of these species requires a more developed endometrium, one which is too thick to reabsorb completely. There is a correlation between species that have overt menstruation to those that have a large uterus relative to the adult female body size.

Recent reviews suggest that menstruation itself is not an evolved, adaptive trait. Rather, it is an inherent consequence of spontaneous decidualization evolving as a derived trait from non-spontaneous decidualization. The grandmother hypothesis is a hypothesis to explain the existence of menopause in human life history by identifying the adaptive value of extended kin networking.

Beginning in , some research suggested that menstrual cycles of cohabiting human females became synchronized menstrual synchrony. However, there is currently significant dispute as to whether menstrual synchrony exists. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about menstruation in humans. For menstruation in other mammals, see Menstruation mammal. Regular discharge of blood and tissue from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.


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Further information: Premenstrual syndrome. Further information: Dysmenorrhea. Main article: Hormonal contraception.

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Main article: Lactational amenorrhea. Main article: Feminine hygiene. Further information: Menstrual hygiene management. Disposable sanitary napkin. The elements of a tampon with applicator. Left: the bigger tube "penetrator". Center: cotton tampon with attached string. Right: the narrower tube. Cloth menstrual pad.

Main article: Tampon tax. Main article: Culture and menstruation. Archived from the original on 26 June Office of Women's Health.

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